Study „Layered Laminated Glass Elements with High Load-Bearing Capacities”

Glass elements with static properties are not possible without laminated glass. The desire of designers and planners for greater transparency on and in buildings is leading to ever larger glass surfaces in modern architecture. This leads to new requirements and properties of future laminated glass constructions.

So far, research has mainly focused on exploring the structural possibilities of laminated glass in lightweight configurations, but a new study takes a slightly different approach.

The aim was to evaluate the structural load-bearing behavior of laminated glass and to evaluate layered glass elements such as columns or masonry walls. Uniaxial compression tests and numerical investigations were carried out on layered laminated glass elements in a vertical and horizontal configuration with various types of intermediate layers.

Ingo Stelzer, Global Technical Consultancy, is co-author of the study "Layered Laminated Glass Elements with High Load-Bearing Capacities". It will be published for the first time at the ‘Engineered Transparency Conference 2021’ (ETC 2021) at glasstec.

Octavian Bunea1, Julian Hänig1, Timo Saukko2, Ingo Stelzer3, Bernhard Weller1

1 Technische Universität Dresden, Institute of Building Construction, August-Bebel-Straße 30, 01219 Dresden, Germany, octav.bu(at), julian.haenig(at) 

2 Finnglass Oy, Asematie 46, 63400 Alavus, Finland, timo.saukko(at) 

3 Kuraray Europe GmbH PVB Division, Philipp-Reis-Straße 4, 65795 Hattersheim, Germany, ingo.stelzer(at) 



In contemporary structural glass applications, laminated glass plays a key role, as it enhances elements beyond the dimensional limits of monolithic glass and ensures the required redundancy. As the size and expectations of glass as primary load-bearing element increase, so do laminated glass layer sizes, and along with them, the manufacturing and production possibilities. However, the design and application of layered laminated glass as primary load-bearing element such as transparent columns or masonry structures is still in its early phases compared to other structural glass elements. As a result, the Institute of Building Construction at the Technische Universität Dresden, in cooperation with Finnglass and Kuraray, investigated horizontal and vertical layered laminated glass elements at uniaxial compression tests. As the interlayer of laminated glass highly affects the load-bearing behaviour and can cause glass breakage due to induced tension stresses, different interlayers (Standard-PVB, SentryGlas® and PVB without plasticizer) were examined in two specimen scales. This paper presents the main insights and assesses the failure modes within the experiments of layered laminated glass under compression. Based on the examinations, constructive recommendations of layered laminated glass elements are derived.